Wednesday, August 21, 2019

The Impact of Literature Essay Example for Free

The Impact of Literature Essay It may go without saying that there are those who will never study, appreciate, or even perhaps consider literature as it is known in academic circles. There are those for whom the written word may have, at best, utilitarian purposes, and for whom any piece of writing beyond a technical manual should, at least, be a work of â€Å"non-fiction,† designed to impart a clearly stated morsel of information or worthy opinion. Part of the explanation for this may coincide with the same general reason that some people never consider religion: the proponents of literature – as is sometimes the case with the proponents of religion – sometimes themselves make their cause a used-up, weary, and trying thing, and may remove from it all the beauty and potential which it might, in the proper hands, convey. Much like religion, literature has a transcendent value, and fulfills an essentially universal need. After all, even the most ardent opponent of the usage of literature in his or her own life embraces forms which complete virtually the same need within him; that is, myths, folklore, stories, movies, television, and even song, occupy essentially the same place and function as literature in the human person, albeit in a form often immeasurably more crude. And, as hotly debated as the following may be in the milieu of post-modern and relativist academic circles, the need to convey truths and explore the human person through story and myth may reach its most sophisticated form in literature. That, of course, raises the implied debate as to just exactly what constitutes literature. Some societies view poetry and theater as â€Å"literature,† could not film, or popular songs also be literature? Along that line of reasoning could folk tales or geographically-oriented stories and Maki 2 myths constitute literature? One runs back into the post-modern worldview when considering that, if the songs of Bob Dylan or the films of Bergman can be considered in any context to be literature, then why not the songs of Madonna or the films of Clint Eastwood? These considerations are relevant as the illustrate that: â€Å"literature,† if defined as relating to the exploration of universal truths and the human person through written or performed language, is relevant in daily human experience. The American child utterly unacquainted with the tales of Little Red Riding Hood, the Three Little Pigs, or Cinderella, is at a vast disadvantage even in understanding many newspaper headlines (a business’ success story may be a â€Å"Cinderella Story;† a poorly chosen infrastructure may be a â€Å"House of Straw. † The list could go on). But, more importantly – and herein lies the great importance of literature – the child may be in danger of lacking the basic, transcendent lessons that society collectively imparts to its youth through the themes of fairy tales: there is danger in the world; stay on the path; obey your elders†¦they might just know what they’re talking about; shoddy effort will bear out a painful reward; arrogance is often misguided. Again, the list could go on. Even then, fairy tales as literature are only a baby step towards grasping the ultimate value of literature as a whole. While some literature function in a given society as a means of forming the parameters of moral uprightness and, essentially, seek to pass down answers, adult literature at its best instead seeks to ask questions that require considerations beyond the formal and accepted confines of social morality, even if at times literature may function in an effort to pull a society back to its forgotten mores. Literature as genuine art probes the human persona Maki 3 and, in order to function well, requires a reader open to growth and change, open to transformation and to a new and perhaps differing(even uncomfortable) perspective on reality. This is not to say that literature does not propose answers to the questions it asks. In fact, literature, like much psychology, may infer that the answers are perhaps inherent in the questions themselves. Literature, has often catalyzed individual change (and it is perhaps indicative of the vapid individualism of the times that the effect of literature on the individual is so much touted, even in this essay, over literature’s relevance to society at large), but of social change as well. Certainly in modern, western history, literature has helped usher in startling levels of social change, be it new considerations of race via the writings of authors like Twain and Stowe, or Upton Sinclair’s impact on something as seemingly subtle as the issue of food packaging safety. Of all the thousands of tracts circulated about communism during the early years of the cold war, what writings continue to influence readers to the degree that Orwell’s two works of utter â€Å"fiction,† Animal Farm and 1984? What political speech concerning the dangers of modernism, both as philosophy and technical practicality, had the chilling impact of Huxley’s Brave New World? What but the well-told tale could arouse sympathy for a group as collectively ridiculed and resented as Depression-era dust-bowl refugees, as in Steinbeck’s The Grapes of Wrath? If one considers artfully written non-fiction a part of the class of â€Å"literature,† the list goes on. It is not treatises but human drama that propel writings like John Hersey’s Hiroshima or Elie Weisel’s Night, to name but a few. What is most relevant about literature in such contexts is that it eschews rational argument in favor of its best representation of human experience, for it is most pointedly in the Maki 4 experience of a thing that the truth of it – the human reality of it – comes to life, and it is through experience that people are most transformed. The experiences presented in the above examples – and they are a microscopic selection of relevant examples – may not be those of the reader, but they, in a sense, become those of the reader, and enable the reader to share in some measure of the stories and experiences of â€Å"the other. † If there were no other value to literature – and certainly there is more value to it than that! – that value alone is worth the effort required of literary pursuits. It may be telling, and perhaps a bit saddening, that it is less and less true that works of literature seem to change the course of social and economic events in the world. The post-modern world is becoming less and less a literate world, and television and film – among other mediums – are replacing the written tale, and even the spoken story, as conveyers of truth and means of questioning what seems set in stone. Were it so that film and television, for example, sought to fulfill the same needs as literature – and indeed, at times they do – perhaps this would not be such a disturbing trend. But film and television, and now, following in their footsteps, much written â€Å"literature,† seek mostly to entertain, to lull viewers into a comfortable despondency and create a sense of need for consumption, all of which perpetuates the success of these mediums. A great many movies have been made based on literature. Now I am not saying that this detracts from the value of moving pictures in society, they just lose something in the translation. Movies have time constraints that do not allow them to explain the hidden meanings of cultural differences that written literature can. The vacuous lack of effort required of the viewer by television points to the factor that may simultaneously be literature’s greatest value and its most daunting hurdle to many potential Maki 5 readers. That is, literature invites readers, at its best, to learn a new set of codes and means of digesting language and tales; it may require, as in (for example) opera, learning an entirely foreign collection of meanings, linguistic cues, symbols, and, in effect, a new kind of listening. But those who seem to most appreciate opera, much like those who seem to most appreciate literature, swear that knowledge and self enlightenment is well worth the toil.

A Room With A View | Analysis

A Room With A View | Analysis In the opening of the novel Forster presents repression within the English class system leading to a life with no view which is represented by the fact that Lucy and Charlotte did not get the rooms overlooking the Arno that they expected. Charlotte represents the stiff and conventional society that is holding Lucy back. Charlottes protecting embrace gave Lucy the sensation of fog. She wants Lucy to behave in a ladylike way and wants her to avoid any improper behaviour with young men. Charlotte holds Lucy back from expressing her true emotions with George Emerson perhaps because of being humiliated herself in a love affair many years ago. I have met the type before. They seldom keep their exploits to themselves. This has prevented Charlotte from seeing that true love exists and so presents to Lucy the complete picture of a cheerless, loveless world with no view. Forster also shows the reader that there are romantic features hidden inside her. This is shown when she secretly tells Miss Lavish about George and Lucys kiss who then proceeds to write her novel about it. This same repression is seen with Lucy who plays her piano with passion showing that only through her music can Lucy truly express herself otherwise she is just an ordinary conventional girl. If Miss Honeychurch ever takes to live as she plays, it will be very exciting (p30) Mr Beebe is waiting for the moment when Lucy can break free from Charlotte and lead a more bold and daring life. When Lucy returns to her home in England the drawing room curtains at Windy Corner had been pulled to meet for the carpet was new and deserved protection from the August sun. They were heavy curtains, reaching almost to the ground, and the light that filtered through them was subdued and varied. The drawing room curtains protect the furniture from the damaging rays of the sun, just as Lucy has been protected in Italy by Charlotte. There is no view and the light has been blocked. This symbolises how Lucy is repressed and prevented from seeing the true nature of life. They are denied the beauty of a view. Cecil also attempts to protect Lucy with his confining ideas. Cecils attitude towards women is arrogant and dismissive: he treats Lucys ideas as if they are of feminine inconsequence and wants her to conform to an image of a Leonardo painting of mystery and quietness, in which he is always dominant. When Lucy thinks of Cecil its always in a room and one with no view (p99). This illustrates how Cecil is repressing Lucys feelings, providing her with a life of monotony and so preventing her seeing the true view of life. Forster uses Italy to awaken Lucy to new ways of thinking and the opening up of windows to view the world. The well-known world had broken up, and there emerged Florence, a magical city where people thought and did the most extraordinary things that has the power, perhaps to evoke passions, good and bad, and bring them to speedy fulfilment (p51). Italy is uninhibited by class restrictions and this sensation of equality and freedom shakes the foundations of Lucys previous view of the world. It is a place where anything can happen. Lucys view on life initially begins to open up by George and Mr Emerson swapping rooms. I have a view, I have a viewThis is my sonhis names George. He has a view, too. Mr Emerson is speaking of their views of the river, but the Forster intends the text to have a double meaning. The Emersons view has to do with more than the quality of their rooms and Forster implies a metaphorical meaning in that the Emersons have a superior view of life which is much freer and more exciting. Miss Lavish takes her Baedeker guidebook and subsequently loses her in Santo Croce when for one ravishing moment Italy appeared to Lucy. Inside the church he meets the Emersons who show her how to enjoy the church by following her heart not by her guidebook. Their philosophic view helps Lucy in her exploration of her own life and the world. The pernicious charm of Italy worked on her, and instead of acquiring information, she began to be happy. Furthermore when Lucy witnesses the murder and the Italian falls at her feet she is overwhelmed the spontaneity of the incident. When she regains consciousness after fainting and is rescued by George, she realises that she as well as the dying man, had crossed some spiritual boundary. Lucy begins to realise that her image of the world based on how others think she should be is being replaced by spontaneous reaction and raw instinct. A new view is opening up for her. She contemplated the River Arno, whose roar was suggesting some unexpected melody to her ears. This view of the river symbolises the great change inside Lucy and the journey to find her true view of life. Lucy however is not reborn into a passionate woman until she is kissed by George. The view was forming at last. Forster is showing how Lucys discovery of her view mirrors her personal discovery. Her experiences in Italy change her, giving her new eyes to view the world, and a view of her own soul as well. Finally Lucy at lasts gains freedom to look out of windows. She is able to see clearly what she wants from life. George tells her that Cecil only sees her as an object to be admired and will never love her enough to grant her independence, while George loves her for who she truly is. Conventional, Cecil, youre that, for you may understand beautiful things, but you dont know how to use them; and you wrap yourself up in art and books and music, and would try to wrap up me. I wont be stifled, not by the most glorious music, for people are more glorious, and you hide them from me. She then breaks off her engagement with Cecil and in doing this she breaks the social code of society. A last minute meeting with Mr Emerson convinces Lucy to admit and act upon her love for George. How he managed to strengthen her. It was as if he had made her see the whole of everything at once. At the very end of the novel George and Lucy have eloped and have returned to the same Pension in Italy and look ou t from the same window to the future world. Although they both look out to the same view of Italy it is with a very different view of the world. Georges view has become clear through his relationship with Lucy who has given him a point to his existence and Lucys view has changed both emotionally and by breaking away from her social class. They both have a literal and metaphorical room with a view one that involves living for the moment and not simply for society. In conclusion Forsters title A Room with a View is very affective because through Lucys eyes we have strayed through the streets of Florence and returned slightly changed, unable to look at the world in the same old way. We all need the room to express our personal truths and the openness and freedom to love that the views in Forsters novel represent.

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

Childhood Depression :: essays research papers

Childhood Depression In recent years, we have heard of depression and the affects of the disorder, and what medications and theories help to prevent depression in adults. Many people are not aware that not only is depression diagnosed in adults, recently studies show that depression is diagnosed in adolescents. Not only adults become depressed. Children and teenagers also may have depression. Depression is defined as an illness when it persists. Childhood depression is one of the most overlooked disorders. Depression probably exists in about 5 percent of children in the general population. Children under stress, who experience loss, or who have, learning or conduct disorders are at a higher risk of depression. Studies show that depression is more likely to show up in boys than in girls. Depression in men and meal adolescents most of the time is over looked are misdiagnosed. Men for instance, have higher rates of drug abuse and violent behavior that do women or young female adolescents do, and some researchers belie that this behavior masks depression or anxiety (Canetto, 1992; Kessler al., 1994). Some Psychologists believe that the reason that young males are more likely to suffer from depression because of the stigmatism of being a male and being taught by adults that expressing there feelings are wrong. According to Carol Wade, Travis, Depression (Major Depression) is a disorder that is sever enough to disrupt a person’s ordinary functioning (Physiology filth edition, 586). The diagnoses of depression might be the same for adults and adolescents, but the behavior of depressed children and teenagers differs from the behavior of depressed adults. Child and adolescent psychiatrists advise parents to be aware of signs in there youngsters such as persistent sadness, A major change in sleeping and eating patterns and increased activity or irritability. Depression is accompanied by physical changes as well. Frequent complaints of physical illness such as headaches and stomachaches A child who used to play often with friends may now spend most of the time alone and without interest. Things that were once fun now bring little joy to the depressed child. Then symptoms could trigger antisocial personality, a disorder characterized by antisocial behavior such as sealing, lying and sometimes violence: a lack of social emotions and impulsively. Children and adolescents and adolescents who are depressed may say they want to be dead or may talk about suicide. Depressed adolescents may abuse alcohol or other drugs as a way to feel better.

Monday, August 19, 2019

Water Aerobics :: essays research papers

Physical activity is an important part of daily life. It allows for many benefits in health and well-being, just 30 minutes a day can reduce the risk of developing certain diseases and conditions. This includes water aerobics. Aerobic exercise in general is important because your body uses oxygen to produce energy for physical activity. Aerobic means with oxygen. This can be accomplished by participating in water aerobics. Water aerobics is a good way to achieve an aerobic metabolism. Aerobic metabolism occurs when the body breaks down fat and glucose by combining them with oxygen. During intense aerobic exercise, your body uses more oxygen and your breathing and heart rate increase. Over time, regular aerobic exercise will improve your health and fitness and reduce levels of body fat. There are many benefits that are gained from participating in water aerobics. Water Aerobics allow the expansion of physical range of motion, along with improved strength and flexibility. Another advantage is that resistance training feels easier because of the way the water controls the weight(s). Water displaces the stress that weight training (on land) can put on the body, especially joints, which is particularly beneficial for those with arthritis. It is also used to rehabilitate people who are recovering from injuries and accidents or just to heal muscles. Water aerobics is also used for people with disabilities to increase the speed of motor skills. Some other benefits are increased circulation, stronger heart, improved physique or figure, and increased energy. Other benefits that are gained from water aerobics relate to social interaction. One of the social benefits is, camaraderie, which occurs between many different types of people, because water aerobics benefits everybody, including athletes, those who need walkers to walk, and pregnant women. It teaches discipline due to the regularity of a weekly class. Water aerobics teaches time management skills because you learn that daily/ weekly exercise is important in maintaining good health. The last social benefit that happens during water aerobics is increased self-confidence and self esteem. For my water aerobic routine I’m going to use different types of water activities to meet the criteria for each specific section that includes a six minute warm up, some cardio, some toning exercises, and about five minutes of cool down. For the warm up I think we should use a mid paced song, I think Incubus’s clean will work well. The warm-up should consist of mostly stretches for six minutes.

Sunday, August 18, 2019

A Comparison between Madame Bovary and The Awakening Essay -- comparis

Similarities Between Madame Bovary and The Awakening      Ã‚   Centuries ago, in France, Gustave Flaubert wrote Madame Bovary. In 1899, Kate Chopin wrote The Awakening. The years cannot separate the books, and the definite similarities that the two show. Madame Bovary is the story of a woman who is not content with her life, and searches for ways to get away from the torture she lives everyday. The Awakening, much like Bovary, features a woman who is unhappy with her life, and wishes to find new adventures. The two books bear very strong similarities to each other, and the plots are almost exactly the same, though there are some subtle differences.    Set in two old cities in France, Emma Bovary, the main character in the first book, is not content with her life. She lives in a small town with a husband who is a well off doctor. She is not like many other women though; early in her life, her father sends her to a convent type school so that she can have an education away from the other less desirable parts of society. She is totally sheltered in this holy world. The only glimpse of the world outside the church walls is the one she experiences through romance novels. These books disillusion her and distort her view of the world. She believes that life should be a continuous fantasy in which she spends her life in constant ecstasy, like the women in her novels. "Why couldn't she be leaning her elbow on the balcony of a Swiss cottage with a husband dressed in a black velvet suit with long coattails, soft boots, a pointed hat, and elegant cuffs." (60) She is so dissatisfied with her life that she cannot see that she might have happine ss, if she only tries to contribute to it. On the other side of the coin, Edna, of The Awake... ...ssics. The question can never be asked of the authors; the similarities can merely only be discussed.       Works Cited and Consulted: Auerbach, Eric "Madame Bovary." In B.F. Bart (ed.), Madame Bovary and the Critics (pp 132-143). New York: New York University Press. 1966. Brombert, Victor. The Novels of Gustav Flaubert: A Study of Themes and Techniques. Princeton: Princeton University Press. 1966 Chopin,   Kate.   The Awakening.   Ed. Margo Culley.   New York:   W.W. Norton, 1994. Flaubert, Gustav. Madame Bovary (Lowell Bair, trans.). New York: Bantam Books 1996 Seyersted, Per, and Emily Toth, eds.   A Kate Chopin Miscellany.   Natchitoches:  Ã‚   Northwestern State University Press, 1979. Tillett, Margaret. "On Reading Madame Bovary." In B.F. Bart (ed.), Madame Bovary and the Critics (pp 1-25). New York: New York University Press. 1966   

Saturday, August 17, 2019

Benefits of good team dynamics Essay

The Benefits of good team dynamics can be seen in sports as well as the work place. When the team works as one, amazing things can happen. Goal setting is a technique that is used by athletes, business people and top achievers in all aspects of life. Psychological research shows that those who set personal goals achieve more, demonstrate improved performance, have less stress and possess positive attitudes. In the business environment there must be a blending of the goals of each individual and those of the organization. People have a desire to be successful and so do organizations. The goals determine the results. When we define our personal goals we are setting a personal standard that will improve the overall effectiveness of the team. Organizations need to help their people define their personal goals. They can then help them interpret the relationship between these personal goals and the organization’s goals. â€Å"As important as individual growth is, no one person can be responsible for total success in the business world. Personal involvement begins with team dynamics.† (Making Success a Shared Res ponsibility, Security Management; Mar94) Another benefit of good team dynamics is the ability to identify the team or individuals capabilities or weaknesses. Highlighting weaknesses will push the team to take the necessary steps to improve. While identifying what capabilities each member of the team has, will enable the team to focus on a strong direction for attacking the problem or task. Effective teams accept team responsibility and do not â€Å"blame† one another for team mistakes, nor do they spend useless time in personal justifications. Team members will look upon first-time mistakes as opportunities for learning, rather than criticism and punishment. An improved team relationship is another benefit. When you have good dynamics the relationships inside your team greatly improve. Everyone love to be on a teams that works well together. You feel that you are striving for the same goals. People will work harder if the dynamics of there team is a positive one. Good teams honour the contribution each makes to the total work of the team. Effective team communication will greatly increase with good team dynamics. Willingness to talk and share information and effectively presenting your point of view. Effective teams communicate easily and openly. Feedback on â€Å"performance† is two-way and constant, providing information to all members of the team on how their work supports the overall effort of the team. Effective teams operate in an environment in which two way trust and honest communication exist. Enhanced critical thinking skills is another benefit of good team dynamics. What is critical thinking anyway? â€Å"Critical thinking is the use of those cognitive skills or strategies that increase the probability of a desirable outcome. It is used to describe thinking that is purposeful, reasoned and goal directed – the kind of thinking involved in solving problems, formulating inferences, calculating likelihoods, and making decisions when the thinker is using skills that are thoughtful and effective for the particular context and type of thinking task. Critical thinking also involves evaluating the thinking process – the reasoning that went into the conclusion we’ve arrived at the kinds of factors considered in making a decision. Critical thinking is sometimes called directed thinking because it focuses on a desired outcome.† (Thought and Knowledge: An Introduction to Critical Thinking. 1996.) With good team dynamics come improved critical thinking skills. Zaleski, John E. (1994) Making Success a Shared Responsibility, Security Management; Mar94, Vol. 38 Issue 3, p22: Retrieved from EBSCOhost search engine. Halpern, Diane F. Thought and Knowledge: An Introduction to Critical Thinking. 1996.

Friday, August 16, 2019

International Toursim Marketing Planning

Contents 1. Introduction to India1 2. PETSEL analysis1 2. 1 Political analysis1 2. 2 Economic analysis2 2. 3 Social analysis2 2. 4 Technology analysis2 2. 5 Environmental analysis3 2. 6 Legal analysis4 3. Customer Analysis5 3. 1 Customer choice factors5 3. 2 Segmentation6 3. 3 Segmentation Matrix7 4. Competitor Analysis8 5. Internal analysis9 6. Summary SWOT analysis and ‘Key Take Out'9 6. 1 SWOT analysis9 6. 2 Key Take Out10 7. Targeting analysis and positioning10 7. 1 Targeting analysis10 7. 2 Positioning12 8. Strategic Planning and Setting Objectives13 9. The â€Å"Value Proposition†14 10.Marketing Mix Recommendations14 11. Measuring Success15 12. Summary15 Appendix A16 References17 Lists of Figures Figure 1Target market selection model11 Figure 2 The positioning map of Health and Wellness tourism segment. 13 Figure 3 Ansoff Matrix14 Lists of Tables Table 1 Arrivals by Purpose of Visit: 2006-20112 Table 2 Health and Wellness Tourism sales by Category : Value 2006 â₠¬â€œ 20113 Table 3 Balance of Thailand Tourism Payment : Value 2006 – 20114 Table 4 Balance of Indonesia Tourism Payment : Value 2006 – 20114 Table 5 Segmentation Matrix7 Table 6 India’s Competitor divided by segment8Table 7 Competitors strengths and weakness9 Table 8 SWOT analysis10 Table 9 The targeting segment analyses12 Marketing Holiday This report provides marketing plan for India tourism industry including 10 steps of marketing planning referring to International Marketing Planning module (2012) 1. Introduction to India India is the most populous democracy, the seventh largest country in term of total area in the world, which located in South Asia surrounded by Pakistan, China, Nepal, Bhutan, Burma, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, the Maldives Indian Ocean, Arabia Ocean and Bay of Bengal (Mintel 2010).In term of tourism, India plays host to a diverse mix of tourism choice. Natures, adventures, cultures, nations, history, architectures and medical are all on offer, making India an attractive destination to a variety of demographic groups. Apart from that, in 2009 this country was singled out as the best value-for-money in term of Country Brand Index (CBI) done by FutureBrand (2012). India has Ministry of Tourism (MOT), its objective is to develop and promote tourism in India by formulating and administrating the rules, regulations and laws.And in 2002, MOT announced â€Å"Incredible India† as the travel theme. The successful of campaign, nowadays the tourism industry in India is becoming the third largest earner in of foreign exchange (Government of India 2012). 2. PETSEL analysis In order to analyses external environment of India’s tourism industry, PESTEL analysis could be applied and offer clues to opportunities and threats (Wood 2004). 2. 1 Political analysis 2. 1. 1 Stable democratic administration India is the world’s largest democracy; it has a stable democratic government for a long decade.India is a Secular Democ ratic Republic with a parliamentary system consists of Parliament and State Government this means in each state of India has its own tourism department (Government of India 2012). It is advantage because each state becomes a competitor of each other, induce high contest between states in order to gain profit from tourism industry. This fact can ensures stability for the tourism industry. 2. 1. 2 Terrorism India is facing with two type of terrorism: external terrorists and internal terrorists but intra-terrorist takes more seriously effect to tourism.There is a trend of growing internal terrorists especially Maoism and Naxalism their case un-peace in the country (South East Asia Terrioms Portal 2011). By the way India's government (2012) is continuously improving its defence inventory to combat any potential attack form terrorists especially in areas like Jammu Kashmir and our metropolitan cities like Mumbai, Delhi, Bangalore and places of strategic importance. 2. 2 Economic analysis 2. 2. 1 Economic growing rate GDP of India rose almost 7% in 10 years then India becomes the fastest growing economies of the world (The World Bank 2012).A higher economic growth can bring about the foreigner investments. This situation wise to supply the higher number of business visits. Apart from that the construction of newer tourist avenues or attraction, beautification of cities and towns etc. are also induce the number of leisure visitor as well. (Rath et al. 2012). The table below clearly shows the huge increase of arrivals from 2006-2011. Table 1 Arrivals by Purpose of Visit: 2006-2011 Source: Euromonitor International from official statistics, trade ssociations, trade press, company research, trade interviews, and trade sources (2012) 2. 3 Social analysis 2. 3. 1 Diversity of nations, cultures and etc. India is a multination country having numbers of different, cultures, traditions, and ethnics. These diverse have a great amalgam of the past and present and this naturally has its effects (Gupta, Lal and Bhattacharyya 2002). Some are negatives; â€Å"culture shock† is a good example when people are facing an unfamiliar way of life when visit to a new country. This is why people who belonging to the more affluent country decide not come to India.Besides there are positives side people who interested in multitudinous lifestyle also visits India and its help to break down prejudices, barriers, suspicions that exist between countries (Back, Bennett and Edles 2012). 2. 3. 2 Languages The languages of Indian reflect the diversity of the country. English is the one of official languages using in political and commercial communication while Hindi is the nation and the most widely spoken language and primary tongue of 41% of the people and 14 other official languages are spoken (Gupta, Lal and Bhattacharyya 2002).With this reason language barrier is not a trouble for both tourist and Indian. 2. 4 Technology analysis 2. 4. 1 Information Technology India has capability and resource in Information technology and engineering for future development (Rapoza 2012). Dogac, et al, (2004) considers the Internet gives many advantages in tourism industry. Some of these benefits for tourists are travel planning, fight booking, hotel reservation those active done on the internet nowadays.Beside on tourism organization use internet to promote new attractions and build long term relationship with customer such as sending special offer to customer, develop collaboration between tourism operators, enhance interoperability of external and internal applications. These actives will help increase the return of traveller. 2. 4. 2 Transportation facilities India’s transportation has been recently developed such as air, marine and land transportation to meet traveller’s need (Government of India 2012). But the image of transportation in this country presenting to the world seems under standard in terms of management and security.For example in May 2012, train accident killed 5 people (BBC NEWS 2012). And in July 2012 fire train killed 32 passengers (BBC NEWS 2012). On the tourist view, the under standardize of transportation will take direct effect to tourist who looking for a luxury tourism experience on the other hand the backpackers seem not really concern about convenience transportation at all (Gupta, Lal and Bhattacharyya 2002). 2. 4. 3 Medical technology Medical in India is developing continuously in various forms such as spa, meditation, hospital and surgery.India provide highly quality and professional with low cost. It costs half or one-third cheaper than similar treatments in neighbouring medical hotspots such as Singapore and Thailand. According to low price of medical service in India, the number of meditation sales has increased double from 2006 in 2011 (Euromonitor International 2012). Table 2 Health and Wellness Tourism sales by Category : Value 2006 – 2011 Source: Euromonitor International from official statistics, trade associations, trade press, company research, trade interviews, trade sources (2012) . 5 Environmental analysis 2. 5. 1 Environmental pollution ; Nature hazard India is experiencing seriously environmental pollution for instant deforestation, soil erosion, air pollution from industrial effluents and vehicle emissions, water pollution, huge and growing population is overstraining natural resources and drinking water is not available thought out the country (CIA 2012). Not only pollution but also natural hazards that India has to deal with like earthquake in the Kashmir valley (NDTV 2012).This situation reflex to life quality in India and may bring down visitor’s trust then decide not to visit India because it is too risk. However, it is a good change for India to improve their environment such as carefully cleaning ancient monument, cleaning areas around and improve them for tourism purpose (Gupta, Lal and Bhattacharyya 2002). 2. 6 Legal analysis 2. 6. 1 Taxation Since end of July 2012, India's government announced to increase tax in short term accommodation business from 5. 15% to 7. 42% (The Times of India 2012). Increasing of tax seem not has major effect to visitor.In generally traveller do not concern in minor change of taxation, take Thailand for example, it increased airport tax and car rental tax in 2011 but tourism  payments still high (Euromonitor International 2012). Table 3 Balance of Thailand Tourism Payment : Value 2006 – 2011 Source: Euromonitor International from official statistics, trade associations, trade press, company research, trade interviews, trade sources(2012) Meanwhile 2011 Indonesia announce full waiver of fiscal  tax in country, but it did not impact to visitor’s spending as well (Euromonitor International 2012).Table 4 Balance of Indonesia Tourism Payment: Value 2006 – 2011 Source: Euromonitor International from official statistics, trade associations, trade press, company research, trade interviews, trade sources (2012) 3. Customer Analysis 3. 1 Customer choice factors After Ministry of Tourism announce and promote â€Å"Incredible India† in 2002, the number of visitor rise continuously because the successful of campaign (Ministry of Tourism of India 2012).India has done very well in creating value and positioning in tourism industry, they provide goods or services that meet or exceed visitors satisfaction base on understanding what customer’s really need and it bring to customer choice factor analyses. Customer choice factor may relate to five factors which are Personal factor, Social factor, Environmental factor, Economic factor and Psychological factor (DOLCETA 2012). Below are lists of possible customer choice factors on tourism industry. 3. 1. 1 Personal factor comes from individual personality: age, sex, emotion, needs, like, knowledge, hobbies and etc. re involved such as (DOLCETA 2012): – Visiting new place – Arts and cultural are attractive – Experiencing new and different lifestyle – Trying new food – Have fun and being entertained – Facilities for disabilities – Exciting outdoor activities – Facilities for disabilities – Standards of hygiene and cleanliness 3. 1. 2 Social factor related with individual sociality and relationship: social trends, family, friends, and other people recommendations. With this factor CCFs might be (DOLCETA 2012): – Meeting new and different people – Being together as family – Being able to communicate in English – Activities for the whole familyTRAVETSAT(2011) reports that  38% of international tourists choose their destination based on friends & relatives’ recommendation. 3. 1. 3 Environmental factor, many people make decision and exaptation for the destination country base on environment, these people need (DOLCETA 2012): – Interesting rural countryside – Conve nience transportation – Nice weather – Exotic atmosphere – Good environmental quality 3. 1. 4 Economic factor, traveling aboard is an activity that must spend a lot of money; some people cannot afford and have limitation for expending during their journey which some money is not a big deal and those also affect to CCFs.The possible CCFs are (DOLCETA 2012): – Inexpensive cost – Variety of shopping place – Destination is valuable to holiday money 3. 1. 5 Psychological factor this factor quite difficult to explain that how it relate to CCFs of tourist because psychological is totally unique in each person depend on their mental function, behaviour and believed then the possible CCFs might be (DOLCETA 2012): – Relaxation – visiting their remembrances places – Safely 3. 2 Segmentation Segmentation helps dividing the present and potential market; organizations will better identify and compare market opportunity.Segments are co nsidered on the basic of geographic, demographic and psychographic. Thus, each segment should distinguishable from others, reachable and relevant to our product (McDonald and Dunbar 2007). The possible segments in tourisms are: Family tourism, customer in this segment usually travels with their family, might be parents with young children spend time together in order to educate their children and make a good relationship between members in family (Ball, Horner and Nield 2007). Religious tourism has purposes for pilgrimage, missionary especially Muslim and Buddhism.They would like to visit ancient pilgrimage place, in fact all religions – Hindu, Buddhism, Jainism and Sikhism have their major and minor pilgrimage centre in the different countries (Gupta, Lal and Bhattacharyya 2002). Health & wellness tourism involved â€Å"people who travel to a different place to receive treatment or proactively pursue activities that maintain or enhance their personal health and well-being, lower cost of care, higher quality of care and different treatment that they could receive at home. This most customers in this segment are Europeans because patients must wait of long time and process in order to avail medical treatment (Global Spa Summit 2011). Adventure tourism is categorized by â€Å"the large amount of activities tourists undertake during their trip, and the large amount of interaction with the natural environment of their destination† Typically adventure tourism will involve something that they would normally not have chance to partake in any other day (Ball, Horner and Nield 2007).Luxury tourism is â€Å"something that is an indulgence rather than a necessity, sumptuous or expensive, abundance or great ease and comfort† these are all  definitions of luxury (The Strategic Travel Action Resource 2003). They just want to spend their money to escape from real life and experience their ideal life for a short term. 3. 3 Segmentation Matrix According to tourist's CCFs we can summaries and segment customer then present in the Segmentation Matrix adapted from Ministry of Tourism of India 2012 Customer Choice Factors (CCFs)| Visiting new place- Arts and cultural are attractive- Experiencing new and different lifestyle- Trying new food- Have fun and being entertained- Facilities for disabilities- Exciting outdoor activities- Standards of hygiene and cleanliness- Meeting new and different people- Being together as family- Being able to communicate in English- Activities for the whole family- Interesting rural countryside- Convenience transportation- Nice weather- Exotic atmosphere- Good environmental quality- Inexpensive cost- Variety of shopping place- Destination is valuable to holiday money- Relaxation- visiting their remembrances places- Safety| Segment Name| Characteristics| Profile| Principal Benefits Sought| Family tourism| These are people who have family and aim to do an activity together, rapprochement in family and educat ing their children. | – Age 7-15 and 30- 45- Couples with young Children. – Well educate- Moderate income | -Visiting new place- Have fun and being entertained- Being together as familyActivities for the whole family- Safety| Religious tourism| These are people who travel individually or in groups have a passionate for pilgrimage, missionary, or leisure (fellowship) purposes. Love to visit holy site or holy place. – Age 40 – 70 – Couples or single, no children- Enthusiast- Priest| – Arts and cultural are attractive- Inexpensive cost- visiting their remembrances places| Health ; wellness tourism| These are people who interested in medical treatment, health and well-being. This range from luxury spa, meditation, yoga, to hospital treatments| – Age 30 – 70- Men and Women- Middle – high income- Interesting in Health ; wellness| – Inexpensive cost- Being able to communicate in English- Standards of hygiene and cleanlin ess| Adventure tourism| These are people who like extreme, venture, and action activities such as mountain climbing, trekking, camping, canyonning, rock climbing and etc. – Young, age 18 – 25- Male- Student ; fresh graduated- Alert ; active| – Experiencing new and different lifestyle- Have fun and being entertained- Exciting outdoor activities- Exotic atmosphere| Luxury tourism| These are people who prefer excellent service, luxury accommodation, high class shopping and other things that make they fell special and unique. | – Age 40+- Newlywed, Honeymoons- High income- Epicure, tasteful| – Convenience transportation- Relaxation- Nice weather- Variety of shopping place| Table 5 Segmentation Matrix| 4. Competitor Analysis Competitor analysis is significant in planning marketing strategies; Company need avoid â€Å"competitor myopia†. To find out main competitor, company must clearly understand competitor's strengths and weakness including thei r objective and strategies (Jobber 2010).Referring to segmentation matrix, each segment has different competitor, some are share competitors which shows in table 6 . The analyses focus on countries which are located in Asia. Japan is the most development country in Asia pacific thus facilities and service offer very high standard suitable for family and luxury tourism to visit there (Japan National Tourism Organization 2012). Singapore is high growing in entertainment sightseeing such as Sentosa Island. Family and luxury tourism are attracted by long sheltered beach, golf courses, five-star  hotels, and the  Resorts World Sentosa, featuring the theme park  Universal Studios Singapore (Singapore Tourism Board 2012).China, This year China push trend â€Å"China Happy & Healthy Tour 2012† aims health tourism to visit because china has rich knowledge in oriental medical for a thousand year it offer an alternative medical (China National Tourism Administration 2012). Thailan d has various Buddhist temples, exotic wildlife, and spectacular islands, also provides wide range area of actives related with natural. Moreover health and wellness tourism has a good reputation in the international market (Tourism Authority of Thailand 2012). Segment Name| Competitor| Family tourism| Japan, Singapore, Thailand| Religious tourism| Thailand| Health & wellness tourism| Thailand, China, Singapore| Adventure tourism| Thailand ,China| Luxury tourism| Japan, Singapore| Table 6 India’s Competitor divided by segment Next, the table 7 will show competitors strengths and weakness Country| Strengths| Weakness|Japan (Japan National Tourism Organization 2012)| – High Technology- Convenience transportation- Good management of government- Has Tokyo Disneyland | – Less people can speak English- High of living cost| Singapore (Singapore Tourism Board 2012)| – High growing economic- Convenience transportation- English is official language- Entertainment i ndustry is flourishing | – Few of historical places- High of living cost | China (China National Tourism Administration 2012)| – Rich heritage of culture, ancient place and mix traditional- Fast country development- Has new travel spot thought out country- 43 Properties inscribed on the World Heritage List- Low living cost| – Social criminal- Only big city has good facilities- Less people can speak English| Thailand (Tourism Authority of Thailand 2012)| – Top 10 in Health tourism- Third largest Buddhist Population in the world- Has significant religious place- Variety of adventure activities- Beautiful landscape | – Unstable Political in country- moderate of English literacy | Table 7 Competitors strengths and weakness 5. Internal analysis The internal analysis is a  review  of an  organization's  strengths and weaknesses depending upon their impact on the organization's objectives. Resource and capabilities, current offering, performance, business relationship and key issue are five factors influence the internal environment (Wood 2004). By the way strengths with respect to one objective may be weaknesses for another objective.A detailed internal analysis will give a good sense of its basic competencies and the desirable improvement that it can make to meet potential customer’s requirements. For more detail of internal analysis will be discussed in SWOT analysis. 6. Summary SWOT analysis and ‘Key Take Out' 6. 1 SWOT analysis SWOT analysis encompasses both internal and external audit of the firm, good analyses can lead to creating marketing plan and strategy (Hollensen 2010). SWOT matrix below details strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of India adapted from (ANSARI March 2012), (Chakravarth, Kumar and K 2008) and (Mecdonald 2003). Table 8 SWOT analysis 6. 2 Key Take OutThe Key Take Outs will summarise the main finding from SWOT analysis which directed significant to customer needs. The point is to single out what to be push forward or adjusted (Wood 2004). As mentioned in CCFs SWOT and reference to Top Factors Influencing Destination Choice by TRAVELSAT (2011), the affordable cost and English illiterate is the India’s greatest strengths; the British Council (2011) claimed that English has often been referred to as a world language and most often taught as a  foreign language. This is the reason why travellers prefer visit country which can speak English. Besides strength, the ineffective marketing seems to be the greatest weakness that should be concerned.With lack of marketing cause India cannot position in strong competition. So the India’s strategic planning will develop weaknesses to strengths meanwhile match the existing strengths with promising opportunities. 7. Targeting analysis and positioning 7. 1 Targeting analysis Referring to customer analysis, there are 5 possible segments of India’s tourism. In this session will evaluate those segm ents in order to select one target segment. The targeting process will focus on attractiveness of each segment such as Market factor, competitive factors and environment factors in order to screen out insufficient profit potential and intense completion segments (Jobber 2010).Furthermore the target segment should fit to firm’s capability as well. To decide which segment is the best target, the target market selection model and Two-factor theory will be applied. Figure 1Target market selection model Source: HOOLEY, Graham J. J. , SAUNDERS, John A. and PIERC, Nigel (2004). Marketing strategy and competitive positioning. 3rd ed. , Harlow, Financial Times Prentice Hall. p. 358. Referring to the Two-factor theory contains with hygiene factor which cause people feeling of dissatisfaction while motivator factor brings people’s satisfaction. Or can say that hygiene factor is the lower level needs and motivator is the higher level needs (Reisinger 2009).The Targeting Decision M atrix below summarises the targeting segment analyses link back to CCFs, adapted from (Lye, Hill and Baker 2012) Segment Name| Segment Attractiveness| Competition Position| Target decision| For targeted segments| | | | | What are the Hygiene factors? | What are possible Motivators? | Family tourism| Unattractive| Weak| Avoid| – Safety – Family activities| – Recognition- Interpersonal relation| Religious tourism| Average| Average| Possible| – Arts and religious' cultural are attractive – Believe | – Sense of achievement- Inexpensive cost | Health ; Wellness tourism| Attractive| Strong| Primary target| – Standards of hygiene | – Inexpensive cost –Being able to communicate in English – Wellbeing| Adventure tourism| Average| Average| Possible| – Exciting outdoor activities | – Exotic atmosphere – Experiencing new and different lifestyle – Have fun and being entertained | Luxury tourism| Ave rage| Average| Possible| – Relaxation | – Convenience transportation – Nice weather – Variety of shopping places | Table 9 The targeting segment analyses 7. 2 Positioning European Health and Wellness tourism is chosen to be the primary segment. As competitors analysis shows that Thailand China and Singapore are the major competitors of the target segment. In order to understand the relative position of product compares with others competitors, two importance CCFs are used to represent the positioning map | English literacy|   | Inexpensive cost| India India | Singapore Singapore Thailand Thailand | Expensive cost| | China China |   | | | English illiteracy|   | Figure 2 The positioning map of Health and Wellness tourism segment.To summarise, there are 3 aspects that help to consider the Health and Wellness tourism as a primary target. First is high growth rate, as in segmentation matrix shows that age of target group is around 30 – 70 years o ld. CIA World Factbook( 2012) reported that over 65% of world populations are 15-70 years old and continuing increase over the next 10 years. Meanwhile, the trends of health and wellness are very popular in the development country such as UK people are looking for alternative medication which is high standard, cheaper and not consume their time. The third is completion position compare with competitors as the positioning map clearly shows that China has inexpensive medication cost but lack of English literacy.In contrast, Singapore fluently speaks English but cost of treatment is too high meanwhile Thai people able to speak English in the middle level but cost of medication still high unlike India has high English literacy and inexpensive cost, positively support to CCFs of target segment as they need low-cost and English speaking. With all above reasons make target segment has the most possibilities of profit creator. 8. Strategic Planning and Setting Objectives The Department of T ourism will to use growth strategy. As ResearchAndMarket website (2012) did the research of â€Å"Asian Medical Tourism Analysis (2008-2012)† and forecasted that India medical tourism able to account 38% of market with in next year. Thus, it become operational objectives for India medical tourism; â€Å"Dominate at least 38% market share of the region's medical tourism industry by 2013, become the highest number of medical tourist and income among other Asian countries within 5 years â€Å".Furthermore, † for the long-term substitutable strategy; objective to gain insight into brand awareness of target customer to middle level and creating the value proposition in customer mind within 10 years † In order to achieve goals the Ansoff’s Matrix will be taken to account; it offers a strategy for reaching objective, identify the key directions and develop sustainable competitive advantage (Ansoff 1987). Figure 3 Ansoff’s Matrix Source: ANSOFF, H. L (1987 ). Strategies for Diversification. Harvard Business Review, Sept. – Oct. , p. 114. As current India medical service has well reputation in the European customers, in the other words India has existing products with existing markets.So the tourism department should do the market penetration focus on the European customer. 9. The â€Å"Value Proposition† The value Proposition can be defined as a benefit which customer will receive in return for the customer's associated payment or in the other hands why a consumer should buy a product or use a service (Hollensen 2010). As the figure 2, we offer customer a standard but inexpensive cost of medical and treatment which operated by English literacy authorities. 10. Marketing Mix Recommendations The marketing mix is a key tool used in marketing; it consists of Product, Price, Promotion, Place, People, Physical Appearances and Processes (Wood 2004).In this session will give recommendations for each element but more detailed on Promotion due to international advertising is the weakness of India tourism. We aim to transform weakness into strength and creating sustainable competitive advantage (Kotler and Armstrong 2012). Product is a customer solution. To satisfy customer needs, India offer wind range of alternative quality medications and services. The Indian Systems of Medicine include Ayurveda, Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha and Homoeopathy (see appendix A) and also has a number of hospitals offering a world class treatment with the specialities and health personnel together (Chakravarth, Kumar and K 2008). They may try to offer medical & travel package to customers.Price is the customer cost, as CCFs of medical tourism they prefer an affordable cost. At this stage, an organization can do the cost differentiate, low cost, discount, and credit terms (Chakravarth, Kumar and K 2008). Promotion refers to the communication, as SWOT shows India lack of international advertising then they should do the fol lowing suggestions: * Increase international advertising. It is good for awareness building in the international market by do advertising on TV in the target countries. Thus, brand concept can be communicated effectively (Kotler and Armstrong 2012). * Personal selling: sell medical package via local agencies.Because agencies not only interactive with customer but also adaptable depending on customer needs (Kotler and Armstrong 2012). * Direct marketing: Targeting on target customers and continuous built long term relationship (Jobber 2010). * Internet promotion: The message send to customer thought electronic media. It is the global reach at relatively low cost but affective and measureable (Jobber 2010). For instant specific website for medical tourism with many languages. Place relevant to convenience. Organization should develop their transportation services make it easy for visitors (Wood 2004). Such as provide Car/ ambulance transfer from airport – hotel – hospita l. People, India should develop and train ealth personnel's skills in order to keep them standardize (Continuum Learning PTE LTD. 2012). Physical Evidence is about where the service is being delivered from. This element of the marketing mix will distinguish a company from its competitors. Customers will make judgments about the organisation based on the physical evidence. For example, in the hospitals or health clubs should have reliable certificate, good ambient conditions and facilities or join and international medical associations. (Continuum Learning PTE LTD. 2012). Process: Develop the process of medication or treatment in India try to make it faster but high quality than another European country (Continuum Learning PTE LTD. 2012). 11. Measuring SuccessWood (2004) suggested that if company want to know whether marketing process successful, company must have clear objectives and baseline measures. At the CEOs and Boards of tourism department point of view surely they care about the financial. The best measurement metrics should be the revenue, margin, profit and ROI (Marketo Inc. 2012). Although, the financial is important but on the marketer aspect the market share and customer’s brand awareness are essential as well. By monitoring those result after lunch marketing activates compare with the previous result, firm can realise that they do the marketing activities in the right way or not? 12. SummaryThe Department of Tourism India chose Health ; wellness tourism as the target segment, the market plan base on the analytical process of PESTEL, internal, competitors, customers, SWOT and marketing mix. Propose to create objective and long term competition advantage and strategy. The success may measure by marketing metres such as revenue, margin, profit, ROI market share and brand awareness. Appendix A Ayurveda: The healing touch of the magic of the invaluable Indian legacy is Ayurveda. Ayurveda is a unique health care system that was established in In dia in around 600 BC. Ayurveda is an indispensable branch of medicine, a complete naturalistic system that depends on the diagnosis of the body's ailments to achieve the right balance Yoga is not really a system of medicine.Its objectives are self- realization and spiritual union with all –pervasive divine cosmic power. But certain intermediary practices and yogic attitudes have proved beneficial for reducing stress, preventing many lifestyle-related diseases, and promoting general health and wellbeing. Naturopathy is based on the fundamental principles of Ayurveda. The basic tenet of Naturopathy is to live according to the laws of nature: disease occurs due to the accumulation of toxins in the body, and to cure the ailment, the body is purified with the use of natural methods, dietary regulations and exercise. Unani: The Unani system originated in the fourth and fifth century BC in Greece under the patronage of Hippocrates and Galen.The system is based on the Humoural theory that good health depends on the balance of the four humours: blood, phlegm, yellow bile and black bile. Siddha: Siddha means a â€Å"master† thus the name denoted the mastery of such practices. The most famous of the siddha was Nagarjuna, whose forms the basis of this system. The distinctive features of siddha are its reliance on minerals and metallic compounds, and its emphasis on rejuvenation therapies. Homeopathy: The term homeopathy comes from the Greek word ‘homios’ means like and ‘pathos’ means suffering. Homeopathy works by looking at the symptoms, will take into account the individual’s mental, physical, emotional and spiritual health before deciding the treatment. Homeopathy is based on the principles that ‘like cures like’.Source: Chakravarth, Kalyan, Kumar, C H. Ravi and K, Deept (2008). 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